DEVIL'S CLAW
Common Names

Devil's Claw , Grapple plant
Botanical Name
Harpagophytum procumbens
Family
PEDALIACEAE ~ Sesame Family

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What is it?

In herbal medicine, it is the roots of Devil’s claw; itself surely the most alarmingly named herb in our dispensary! The name Devil’s claw comes from a) what the thorny fruits of this South African bush look like and b) what it feels like if you stand on it!


FLOWERS


'CLAWS'


CHOPPED ROOT

How has it been used?

Devil’s claw is highly regarded in herbal medicine as a natural treatment for inflammatory joint and muscle conditions. The stiff, inflammatory joints of arthritis are its most common reason to be used but it has also been widely used for rheumatism, gout, sciatica, lumbago, muscle inflammation (myalgia) and tendonitis.

Rudolph Weiss M.D writes 'the main indication for Devil’s claw is arthritis and back pain due to spondylosis, others include chronic inflammatory polyarthritis, neuralgia and headache'.

Devil’s claw is also thought to have an action on the liver and it has been traditionally used for chronic itchy skin conditions and swollen varicose veins.

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Science on Devil's Claw

~ There is a growing body of scientific evidence suggesting that devil's claw is safe and beneficial in the short-term management of pain related to degenerative joint disease or osteoarthritis. It may be equally effective as drug therapies, such as non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs, or may allow for dose reductions of cessation of these drugs in some patients (Gagnier JJ, Chrubasik S, Manheimer E. Harpgophytum procumbens for osteoarthritis and low back pain: a systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med 2004;4:13)

~ There are also several controlled human trials supporting the use of devil's claw for the treatment of low back pain (Gagnier JJ, van Tulder MW, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. A Cochrane review. Spine 2007;32:82-92)

In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, multicentre study, Devil's claw taken over a period of 4 months significantly reduced functional disability and pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip and it was shown to be as effective as the analgesic drug diacerhein. The number of patients using NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and other pain-killers at the end of the study, and the frequency of adverse reactions, was significantly lower in the at the Devil's claw group. The daily dose was 2.6 grams of freeze dried Devil's claw powder containing 87mg of iridoid and 57mg of harpagoside (Chantre P et al: Phytomed 7(3):177-183, 2000) (Leblan D, Chantre P, Fournie B: Joint Bone Spine 67(5):462-467, 2000)

~ In a randomised study in patients with back pain treatment with Devil's claw extract (equivalent to 6 gms of root and containing 50mg of harpagoside) for 4 weeks demonstrated a significant reduction of pain compared to placebo and more patients in the treatment group were pain free at the end of the study. A similar study confirmed these results with more patients receiving the Devil's claw pain free at the end of another 4 week trial (Chrubasik S et al: Eur J Anaesthesiol 16(2):118-129, 1999)

~ In a large uncontrolled study of patients with various rheumatic illnesses, 42% to 85% showed significant improvement after 6 months treatment with Devil's claw extracts: 75 to 225 mg/day of iridoid glycosides (Belaiche P: Phytotherapy 1982:1:22-28)

~ There are well over 100 published studies and articles on Devil's claw, a PDF showing their titles, authors and when and where they were published can be found here

Safety of Devil's Claw

There are no adverse reactions reported in the medical literature and Devil's claw is regarded as safe to take in pregnancy or whilst breastfeeding however, as a potent digestive tonic herb, this remedy may cause an upset stomach to sensitive individuals when used in higher doses and it is recommended to be avoided if there is a sensitive or inflamed digestive lining such as in peptic ulcers.

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Personal experiences

I have deep respect for the great potency of Devil's claw when it is taken in high enough doses to help shift stuck pain and inflammation in the body. Devil's claw is a deep-acting medicine with stimulating, warming and cleansing effects in the body and I have seen many good results when using it for people with chronic inflammatory conditions -- but, dosage is critical and the simple fact is that many commercial preparations of Devil's claw do not get close to the amounts used in the above clinical trials or what has been used in traditional herbal medicine practice.

The dose range recommended by the renowned Rudolph Weiss M.D for Devil's claw gives a good idea as to how much is needed. He writes 'The recommended daily dose is 1.5 gms of the drug for loss of appetite and 4.5 gms for rheumatic disease. The tea is prepared by pouring two cups of boiling water on one teaspoonful (1.5gms) or one tablespoon full (4.5 grams) of the finely chopped or coarsely powdered drug; this is allowed to stand for 8 hours at room temperature, then strained. The tea prepared in this way can then be divided into two or three doses to be taken warm shortly before meals'.

If you who are reading this are studying herbal medicine or if you simply want to understand such a great plant ally at much a deeper level I recommend the old practice of taking a small dose of it and then, with a quiet and attentive mind, observing what you then experience through that remarkable laboratory you have by virtue of simply being born - your own body!

Devil's claw has a deep penetrating bitterness which will be a challenge to you if you are not used to such a taste but if you stay with it (i.e. don't rush to eat or drink something) I know you will feel for yourself just how deeply this herb can penetrate into your body. For myself I feel this action like a kind of 'heat-seeking missile!' You can feel exactly how it seeks out heat in the form of stuck inflammation and then starts up a kind of persistent and insistent nudging that says 'go on, get going, get moving'. There is no deeper and more stuck inflammation that a person can get in their body than that which takes up residence in the joints - to take up a healing journey with such a problem that is not merely seeking to mask and suppress the symptoms (i.e. anti-inflammatories) we need a most powerful ally along the way and this can be the root of this peculiarly powerful plant.

Further to this, if you would like to learn more about the ancient art of pulse testing, a simple but powerful way to ask the intuitive intelligence of the body for its responses to a herb by feeling the pulse whilst giving a tiny dose by mouth, read here

I have successfully used the root of Devil's claw in decoction formulas along with other herbs in similar doses to what Dr Weiss described above but I also often prescribe it as a tincture in high doses (up to 8 mls in a day) where I have also seen excellent results for chronic pain and inflammation.

Devil's claw combines particularly well with Celery seed and Juniper berry for arthritis in specific joints and with Celandine and Dandelion root for conditions that involve rheumatic pains that move around the body.

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Constitutional note

Much of the information here about the traditional uses of Devil's claw is consistent with the model of thinking whereby one may treat problem A with plant B. There is value in this approach, especially in how it helps us pass on useful knowledge to one another, but it falls short in one vital area; and that is that people are not all cut from the same cloth! Something that works brilliantly for one person may do less for another -- why is this?

The reason is that people vary in their constitutions as to whether they are either hotter or cooler and, at the same time, either dryer or damper. This interesting and useful subject is introduced further here

There is an old wisdom in treating the person first and the condition second and in this light Devil's claw can particularly offer its benefits when a cleansing action is needed in the 'cycle of healing', more about this here

Modern research on Devil's claw

Researchers Czygan and Hiller explain that it is used “as an antirheumatic and for supportive treatment of degenerative painful rheumatic disorders. Clinical reports of its analgesic and anti-arthritic actions have been available since the 1950’s, which have been confirmed through modern studies. "Good therapeutic results have been achieved using devil’s claw extracts in therapy of degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system and degenerative disorders of the locomotor system as well as in the treatment of severe low back pain in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical studies.”

The results of a recent South African study indicate that devil’s claw root “possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties, and lend pharmacological support to the suggested folklore uses of [devil’s claw] root in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions.”

Please understand that I cannot advise you, including on products or dosage, without seeing you in person in my clinic but for ideas on how you might find a good herbalist in your area read here

This living 'book' is my labour of love so, wherever you are, I wish you peace & good health!

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© 2011 R.J.Whelan Ltd