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Common Names

Black cohosh, baneberry, black snakeroot,
Botanical Name
Cimicifuga racemosa


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What is it?

In herbal medicine we use the roots of Black Cohosh, a tall, long-lived herb that grows in woods and high grounds. The medicine made from the roots is bitter, penetrating and distinctive.




How has it been used?

Black Cohosh has always been seen as herb with a particular affinity for helping gynaecological problems and in modern times it is used almost exclusively as a herb to aid the menopausal transition. Rudolph Weiss M.D. writes 'Black Cohosh is primarily used for treatment of menopausal complaints and it is also used to treat premenstrual syndrome and juvenile menstrual disorders where mood disorders are a predominant factor.'

However Black Cohosh has much wider actions and effects, a fact that was not lost on the Native American Indians who were the first to extensively use it in their own highly developed system of medicine. Black Cohosh has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory conditions associated with cramping or spasm such as sciatica, rheumatism, painful periods, painful childbirth, low back pain and headaches.

The great eclectic tradition of herbal medicine from the 18th and 19th centuries regarded Black Cohosh so highly that many called it 'the premiere medicine for both depression and rheumatism'.

From King's Dispensatory, 1898: Few of our remedies have acquired as great a reputation in the treatment of rheumatism and neuralgia. Prof. King's own statement of his use of it is as follows: "The saturated tincture of this article was recommended by me in acute rheumatism, in the New York Philosophical Journal, as early as in the year 1844; to be given in doses of 10 drops every 2 hours, gradually increasing to 60 drops, or until its action on the brain is observed, which action must be kept up for several days; it almost always removes the disease permanently, especially if it is a first attack"
The experiences of other physicians since that day give abundant evidence of the truth of his statement

Dr Gardner writes in the Bulletin of the Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy and Materia Medica, published in 1931 'Shortly after commencing the use of this remedy, the hectic paroxysms (spasms) which had attended me for some time previously, were entirely checked. The nocturnal evacuations (night sweats) from the surface of the body began to diminish. The evaporation of a fluid from the vessels of the lungs and bronchia, resembling pus in appearance, was speedily arrested. The cough became less troublesome and frequent. My pulse, which for some time before was never lower than from 100 to 120 pulsations to the minute, was reduced to the minimum standard. The pain in my right breast and side left me. My strength and appetite began to improve. I speedily abandoned the use of all medicines or other means. A period of 12 months of more had elapsed from my initial ill-health to the time of using this medicine. It certainly possesses the power in an eminent degree of loosening arterial action, and at the same time imparting tone and energy to the general system'.


Science on Black Cohosh

~ Black cohosh has been shown to exhibit an action on the central endogenous opioid system in postmenopausal women as evidenced by suppression of mean luteinizing hormone pulse frequency following opioid receptor blockade (Reame, N. E., Lukacs, J. L., Padmanabhan, V., Eyvazzadeh, A. D., Smith, Y. R., and Zubieta, J. K. Black cohosh has central opioid activity in postmenopausal women: evidence from naloxone blockade and positron emission tomography neuroimaging. Menopause 2008;15(5):832-840)

~ Laboratory study of cimicifugic acids C and D, and fukinolic acid in the rhizome of black cohosh show vasoactive effects. (Noguchi, M., Nagai, M., Koeda, M., Nakayama, S., Sakurai, N., Takahira, M., and Kusano, G. Vasoactive effects of cimicifugic acids C and D, and fukinolic acid in cimicifuga rhizome. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21(11):1163-1168)

~ Extracts of black cohosh have protected against induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species in vitro. A sample of black cohosh collected in 1919 by the physician and plant explorer Henry Hurd Rusby, was recently identified in the collections of The New York Botanical Garden and analyzed. A comparison of the triterpene glycosidic and phenolic constituents of the 85 year-old plant sample with those of a modern collection of Actaea racemosa showed the similarity of the two samples, and both extracts showed similar antioxidant activity. This confirms the stability of the older sample, despite curation (Jiang, B., Yang, H., Nuntanakorn, P., Balick, M. J., Kronenberg, F., and Kennelly, E. J. The value of plant collections in ethnopharmacology: a case study of an 85-year-old black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) sample. J Ethnopharmacol 1-15-2005;96(3):521-528)

~ According to in vitro study, black cohosh was found to be consistent with a human mu opiate receptor (hMOR) agonist, with an EC50 of 68.8 ± 7.7mcg/mL, which may explain its purported beneficial role in alleviating menopausal symptoms (Rhyu, M. R., Lu, J., Webster, D. E., Fabricant, D. S., Farnsworth, N. R., and Wang, Z. J. Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Cimicifuga racemosa) behaves as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist at the human mu opiate receptor. J Agric Food Chem 12-27-2006;54(26):9852-9857)

~ Black Cohosh was tested on 28 menopausal women with 80% showing good or very good efficacy in relation to the symptoms measured. It was not found to alter the hormones: estradiol, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or leutenising hormone (LH). (Nesselhut T, Liske E: 10th Annual Meeting of the North American Menopause Society, New York, Sept 23-25, 1999)

~ A double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 179 women showed that a combination of Black Cohosh and St John's wort was highly effective for reducing menopausal symptoms. (Boblitz N et al: Focus Alternat Comp Ther 5(1):85086, 1995)

~ A review of clinical trials shows that Black Cohosh has therapeutic effectiveness for moderate to severe neurovegetative symptoms of menopause. Good tolerability and low risks of side-effects have also been confirmed (Liske E: Adv Ther 15(1):45-53, 1998)

~ Black Cohosh does not contain estrogens and nor does it directly alter estrogen levels however compounds within the plant act as selective estrogen re-uptake modulators (SERMs) and it is this which is proposed to be the reason it helps reduce the symptoms of menopause (Third International Congress on Phytomedicine, Munich, October 11-13, 2000, Phytomed 7(supp 2):11-12, 2000)

Safety of Black Cohosh

~ Black Cohosh should not be used at the same time as the drug Tamoxifen although it should be noted that this caution comes about because of experiments that show it augments the action of the drug rather than reduces it! (Zierau, O., Bodinet, C., Kolba, S., Wulf, M., and Vollmer, G. Antiestrogenic activities of Cimicifuga racemosa extracts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2002;80(1):125-130)

~ Black Cohosh is said to be avoided in pregnancy and breastfeeding and one must always err on the side of caution in such matters but it is worth noting that a) there are no reports of adverse events in this regard, b) that the Indians certainly did not consider it unsafe to use at any time of life and that c) the concerns raised in this area are theoretical and based on its apparent ability to influence hormonally related problems.

General comment on herbal safety

All medicinal herbs that have the power to do good have the potential to do harm. The old maxim 'the poison is in the dose' precisely describes how too much of anything can be bad for us. The ancient rule to 'firstly, do no harm is, to this day, held as the core directive by all practitioners of traditional herbal medicine. Not only are we careful to do our best to use the right herbs, but equally we take care to not give too much of them or use them overlong.

For some years now, against this proven and safe way of herbalism, there has been a rising tide of excessive caution and scare-mongering in many parts of the world. The same authorities that, not so long ago, decried herbal medicines as ineffectual, have now taken up a different adversarial position; that they are dangerous substances that should only be prescribed by Doctors, who of course have zero training in them.

Lists of '10 popular herbs and why you should avoid them' include things like Garlic and Ginger that might 'thin your blood'. Such cautions are absurd to the point of the ridiculous, but fear is a universal driver that has long been proven to be effective at manipulating people.

Unfortunately, the same unnecessary fear and worry has crept into many natural health websites and popular publications on herbs. Herbs that we have safely used for thousands of years, that have no reports of adverse reactions in the medical literature despite widespread use by millions of people, are suddenly described as contraindicated because of something that should have been seen as completely unimportant, or at the utmost a merely theoretical concern, such as a laboratory study on one of the herb's constituents to use an all too common example.

I wonder sometimes if the writers of such articles feel that the herb will be more deserving of respect if it is thought to be a little bit dangerous, in other words more like a drug than something that has simply come out of the earth and been used by ordinary people for generations beyond count.

There is just so much misinformation about herbal medicine on the internet now. Ludicrous claims and cautions abound in equal measure; it seems like one group are trying to make money out of the public whilst the other are busily trying to scare them off.

I have to believe that the kind of reader who takes the time to read pages on herbs that are as extensive as this one is much less likely to be swayed by marketers or misinformers. I hope that you will keep your wits about you if you get conflicting opinions from people who have never really got to know these herbs, who have never worked with them, or learned how to use them safely and effectively.

I want to remind you that the reason that herbs can never be patented and owned by any individual or corporation is because they are, and always will be, the People's medicine. They belong to all of us and it is my great hope in sharing this work that you will learn how to use them wisely for yourself, and the people you care for. Be safe, but do not be afraid.


Personal experiences

Having developed a personal relationship of particualr warmth and regard towards this herb I wrote an article on it for the herbalist's magazine Avena which can be read here

Due to early testing (since the 1950s) in Europe with Black Cohosh for menopause related symptoms the appreciation of this great herb has become rather single-focused whilst its other traditional uses have largely been forgotten in modern times - this is unfortunate because it has so much else to offer.

For example Black Cohosh has a powerful effect on the mind. Thomas Bartram writes of it 'for melancholia, hysteria and nervous depression'. If someone is depressed or lacking creative flow I have often found Black Cohosh to be a phenomenal remedy to help. For the right person it can be even more potent than St John's wort at helping to break out of stagnation and melancholia.

Physically Black Cohosh is equally potent at breaking down the barriers to the innate healing process. One of the most common Indian uses for it was in rheumatism and it can certainly get right into the deepest parts of the body where there is pain, stiffness or stagnation.

I think of Black Cohosh as a blood and energy moving herb and I have developed a deep respect for the power of Black Cohosh to affect significant changes both physically and psychologically.

Black Cohosh is a very dynamic remedy where a little goes a lon g way - the 'body' (which you could also call the 'subconcious') will soon tell you what it thinks about the herb. The art of knowing when to use Black Cohosh and in what dose cannot be put in a simple summary but what I can say for a start is that if you who are reading this are studying herbal medicine then this is one of those remedies that will greatly reward your learning how to carefully test it on your patients before using it.

The best way I have found to do this is to quietly observe and at the same time gently feel the person's pulse before, during and after giving a few drops of Black Cohosh on the tongue. Observe what you feel and see with an open mind and I am sure you will get strong and clear impressions from that great laboratory of the human organism in front of you - it knows what is good for it and what is not; the pulse palpably strengthens or weakens and at the same time, the 'colour' of their complexion visibly improves or lessens, and if you notice it their breathing either constricts or relaxes and so forth. To some extent you can test these things on yourself in the same way but at the same time we are often much better at observing another than we are ourselves! This process is also discussed further here

Dosage matters

Dosage is always critical in herbal medicine; too little and nothing will happen, too much and you get to know about it in the wrong way! I find that for men (I do use this herb for men with aches and pains or a persistently low mood) higher amounts can be taken, even up to 5 or 6 mls in a day if that is what it takes to effect a shift.

For women smaller doses, perhaps just 1 or 2 mls a day seem to be ample. I will gently nudge the dose upwards if there are no ill effects and we don't think it is obviously working yet but just by 1 ml at a time.

I have used Black Cohosh in tea form and think it is very fast acting in this way. Further to this I think that, in most cases, Black Cohosh needs to be taken for about 3 months and then either stop or give the system a rest from its influence before it might beneficially be taken again

Black Cohosh can combine perfectly with Wild Yam for rheumatic problems. For the right person it can be perfect with St John's wort to help lift a low mood and for the right woman it can be ideal combined with Paeony and Licorice for menopausal problems.


Constitutional note

Much of the information here about the traditional uses of Black Cohosh is consistent with the model of thinking whereby one may treat problem A with plant B. There is value in this approach, especially in how it helps us pass on useful knowledge to one another, but it falls short in one vital area; and that is that people are not all cut from the same cloth! Something that works brilliantly for one person may do less for another -- why is this?

Part of the reason is that people vary in their constitutions as to whether they are either hotter or cooler and, at the same time, either dryer or damper. This useful and rather fascinating subject is introduced further here

Another big part of using the right herb when it is most needed comes from understanding the need to treat what is going wrong for the person that had led up to their getting a health condition. In this light, Black Cohosh can particularly offer its benefits when an activation is needed in the 'cycle of healing' - more about this here

Please understand that I cannot advise you, including on products or dosage, without seeing you in person in my clinic but for ideas on how you might find a good herbalist in your area read here

This living 'book' is my labour of love so, wherever you are, I wish you peace & good health!




© 2011 R.J.Whelan Ltd